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మా తెలుగు తల్లి కి మల్లె పూదండ, మా తెలుగు తల్లికి మల్లెపూదండ, మా కన్నతల్లికి మంగళారతులు, కడుపులో బంగారు, కనుచూపులో కరుణ, చిరునవ్వులో సిరులు దొరలించు మాతల్లి, గలగలా గోదారి కదలిపోతుంటేను, బిరబిరా కృష్ణమ్మ పరుగులిడుతుంటేను, బంగారు పంటలేపండుతాయి, మురిపాల ముత్యాలు దొరలుతాయి, అమరావతి నగరి అపురూప శిల్పాలు, త్యాగయ్య గొంతులో తారాడునాదాలు, తిక్కయ్య కలములో తియ్యందనాలు, నిత్యమై నిఖిలమై నిలిచియుండేదాక, రుద్రమ్మ భుజశక్తి, మల్లమ్మ పతిభక్తి, తిమ్మరుసు ధీయుక్తి, కృష్ణరాయలకీర్తి, మా చెవుల రింగుమని మారుమ్రోగేదాక, నీ పాటలే పాడుతాం, నీ ఆటలేఆడుతా, జై తెలుగుతల్లీ జై తెలుగుతల్లీ-శంకరంబాడి సుందరాచార్య

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Sunday, March 25, 2007

Sri Krishnadevaraya


Sri Krishnadevaraya ruled the Vijayanagara empire for 21 years during the years, 1509 – 1529.

The reign of Krishnadevaraya marks “the grand climax in the development of the empire, and the successful achievement of the objects for which it was actually founded”. He was the greatest ruler of Vijayanagara and one of the most famous kings in the history of India and is considered as the greatest Hindu kuruba king to have ever lived. The present Rayalaseema (The land of Krishnarayalu) of Andhra Pradesh forms the core of Krishnarayalu’s Empire. A lot of information about his reign comes from the accounts of Portuguese travellers Domingos Paes and Nuniz.

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Krishnadevaraya also called Krishnaraya or Srikrishnarayalu was born to King Narasa Nayaka of Tuluva dynasty and is stated to have ascended the throne on the death of his brother Vira-Narasimha in May 1509. An empire-wide exemption of the marriage-tax seems to be almost the first act that the king affected soon after assuming the reins of the kingdom. The daily proceedings in the court took place in Telugu. Krishnadevaraya said about Telugu: “Desabhashalandu Telugu lessa” meaning "Telugu is the best among the national languages”.

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Within six months of his coronation, Krishnadevaraya started out his military campaigns by invading and defeating the sultanate of Bidar and the king of Bidar's ally, Yusuf Adil Khan.By the year 1510, most of northern Karnataka was under his rule. Krishnadevaraya had conquered Raichur, Gulburga and Bidar. Having conquered such vast lands, he built a beautiful city in Seringapatnam and made it the capital of Vijayanagaram. By 1516 Vijayanagar's territory stretched all the way to the Krishna and Godavari rivers. Krishnadevaraya's conquests forced him to continually war with Bijapur and Golconda, both of which he successfully defeated and captured commander of Golconda, Madurul-Mulk. The highlight of his conquests occurred on May 19, 1520 where he secured the fortress of Raichur from Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur after a difficult seige during which 16,000 Vijaynagari soldiers were killed. During the campaign against Raichur, it is said that 703,000 foot soldiers, 32,600 cavalry and 551 elephants were used. Finally, in his last battle, he razed to the ground the fortress of Gulburga, the early capital of the Bahmani sultanate. His empire extended over wide areas of the present day Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

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He utilized his trading skills to obtain Portuguese guns and Arabian horses, in order to strengthen his nation. He also utilized Portuguese expertise in improving water supply to Vijayanagaram City. A traveler to Vijayanagara, Domingo Paes, describes Krishnadevaraya's Vijayanagara as "the best provided city in the world with a population of not less than a half a million." In fact he estimated the size of the city to be around that of Rome. He also described Krishnadevaraya as "the most feared and perfect king that could possibly be, cheerful of disposition and very merry, he is one that seeks to honor foreigners, receives them kindly. He is a great ruler and man of much justice.” The empire was divided into a number of provinces often under members of the royal family and into further subdivisions.

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Emperor Krishnarayalu was not only a great warrior and administrator, but also an accomplished poet. As a patron of art and Telugu literature he was unsurpassed in the history of Telugus. He wrote Amuktamalyada, a ‘prabandhamu.’ Prabandhamu is a variety of Telugu poetry which is mainly a narrative or a continued discourse. Often sensuality (sringaramu) dominates in Prabandhas. In Amuktamalyada, Emperor Krishnaraya beautifully describes the pangs of separation suffered by Godadevi (the human incarnation of mother Earth, the wife of Lord Vishnu) for her lover Lord Vishnu. He describes Godadevi’s physical beauty in thirty verses. Even the descriptions of spring and monsoon seasons add to the strength of sensuality. The sensual pleasure of union extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to the spirituality and ultimate union with the lord Vishnu leading to Moksha, a state of being unity with God. Here Godadevi represents the humanity and her longing for Lord Vishnu (the Ultimate Supreme God) is the humanity’s search for Moksha and divinity. One of the main characters in this ‘prabandhamu’ is Vishnuchittudu, the father of Godadevi. Lord Vishnu commands Vishnuchittudu to teach King of Pandya Dynasty the path of knowledge to Moksha. There are several short tales described in Amuktamalyada in the course of the main story of Godadevi, e.g., narration of Khandikhya-Kesidvaja, Maladasari, Yamunacharya, Chandala-Brahmarakshasa Vivadamu-the argument between chandala (outcaste) and brahmarakshasa (spirit of a Brahmin), etc. The main purpose of this prabandhamu is to spread the Vaishnavite religion and the path of knowledge. Emperor Krishnarayalu was also well-versed in Sanskrit and Kannada languages. “Jambavati Kalyanamu” is his Sanskrit work.

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As a king, Krishnadevaraya is known to have built many temples in his kingdom, restrengthening Hinduism after its lands had fallen to muslim sultans. Krishnadevaraya did a lot to assist Hinduism in a rather dark era for Hinduism. Krishna Deva Raya respected all sects of Hinduism, although he personally leaned in favour of Vaishnavism. Eight poets known as Astadiggajalu(eight elephants in the eight cardinal points such as North, South etc.) were part of his court (known as Bhuvanavijayamu). According to the Vaishnavite religion there are eight elephants in eight corners in space and hold the earth in its place. Similarly these eight poets were the eight pillars of his literary assembly. These Astadiggajas were: Allasani Peddana, Nandi Thimmana, Madayyagari Mallana, Dhurjati, Ayyalaraju Ramambhadrudu, Pingali Surana, Ramarajabhushanudu, and Tenali Ramakrishnudu. Among these eight poets Allasani Peddana is considered to be the greatest and is given the title of Andhra Kavita Pitamaha (the father of Telugu poetry). The period of the Empire is known as “Prabandha Period,” because of the quality of the prabandha literature produced during this time.

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Sri Krishnadevaraya lavished on the Tirupati temple numerous objects of priceless value, ranging from diamond studded crowns to golden swords. He is known to have commissioned the making of statutes of himself and his two wives at the temple complex. This can be seen in a mandapam at Tirupathi temple and is called Sri Krishna Deva Raya Mandapam or Pratima Mandapam. It hosts the bronze portrait icons of the Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya and his two consorts, Tirumaladevi to his left, and Chinnadevi to his right.

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Sri krishnadevaraya’s own son Tirumala having predeceased him, Achyuta succeeded the throne after the natural death of the Sri Krishnadevaraya at the end of 1529.

5 comments:

Krishna Narayanan said...

Whe built a beautiful city in Seringapatnam and made it the capital of Vijayanagaramell written except for the observation ". I can find no record that indicates that the emperor buit the city of Seingapatanam and made it his capital. The city of Vijayanagaram (presnt day Hampi area) always remained the capitalduring the emperor's time and his successors until the year 1565.

praveen patnaik said...

what about the wars faced by krishna devaraya??????????
what about his intellectuals with mughal emperor?????????

sai venkata naresh said...

that he is belongs to kuruma caste is it really right.. that some body saying that he is naidu caste what is correct?

nagesh said...

i like it .thanks.thank u very much

Venkateswarlu Chennuboina said...

page 179

No 38.

Nanjangud Taluk

1. Svasti sri vijayabhyudaya Salivahana saka 5 varusha
2.1434 sandu ......srimukha samvatsarada Phalguna ba svasti jitam
3.bhagavata gata ghana gaganabhena sthira simhasanarudha sri nahaajadhiraja ra
4.ja parameswara sriman mahamedini ,miseyaraganda kathari saluva sriman dekshina samu
5.dradhipati Narasimha varma maharajadhiraja tut putra pituranvagata YADAVA kulamba
6.ra dyumani samyuktva chudamini sakala vanahi brind sandoha (santarpana)paranarisahodara
7.sauchavira(sarvavira) parakramadhara sakala desadhisvara mani makuta charanaravinda kathari
8.trinetra srimat krishnavarma maharajadhiraja prudhvirajyam geyinottiralu dakshina de
9.sadhi vijayavagi dittayisida vira Krishnarayara nyupadim srimanu mahapradhanam Ya
10.ju sakheya khandava gotrada Apastambha sutrada srimanu Saluva Timmarasaru dakshina
11.varanesi Gajaranyakshetra Rajaraja purvada Talakadali sri mahadevadevo
12. ttama kirti Narayana devarige thayurasthalada kavahaliyolaganegado ........



Translation -----------

Be it well.In the victorious and prospering Salivahan era 1434 year s having expired while the year srimukha was current, on the 5th lunar day of the dark half of Phalghuna.Be it well.Victory to the Adorable(padmanabha)who resembles the sky free from clouds.While illustrious Krishnavarma maharajadhiraja seated on the stable throne, the prosperous king of kings, lord of kings, champion over those who wear mustaches in the great earth, kathari saluva(dagger and kite ) , eruler over the southern sea,Narasimha mahadhiraja's son ; asun to the fragment that is the Yadava race of which he is a lineal descendant: :..............................Under the orders of vira Krishnaraya, whole he was pleased to go on a victorious expedition to the to the south:the illustrious mahapradhana(chief minister) Saluva Timmarasa of yaju sakha khandava gotra and apastambha sutra made agift to the best of the gods kirtinarayana devaru of Talakadu which is Rajarajpuram...............



Note ----


-It belongs to the reign of Vijayanara king Krishnaraya and is dated S.1434srimuka sam.phal.ba.5. This data correspond to March 15, A.D. 1514; .........The pecular feature in the historical portion of this record the king Krishnaraya is here styled krishnavarma maharajadhiraj as is also the case in two other inscriptions of th same Talu.(E.C.-III Nanjanguda 190 and 195 of 1512 and 1513 A.D)............


Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department for the 1930
University of Mysore
Banglore
1934.